Folk Religion: The Hindu Mantras and The Origins of Language

(This is a speculative post. NO MORE THINKING ABOUT VIRUSES AND TRUMP! This Post considers the potential connection between the Hindu Mantras and the formation of the basic sounds [the phonemes] of the Indo-European Languages. These are controversial topics and I am just discovering some of the issues involved. Language, and linguistically-based society, are at the core of theories of The Mind as something profoundly different than the scientific hardware of the Brain. A new level of complexity emerges here, and needs its own vocabulary for adequate description and explanation. Roughly, the brain is like the hardware of a computer; the Mind is the software downloaded to it. This post speculates on the transition to language-based, and culture- based, living. The Hindu mantras are a celebration of linguistic sounds, as much as any ideas of gods.)

(Figurines from the Ancient Indus Valley Civilization from about 2500 BCE, Bronze Age. Scholars of religion believe that it was in this valley and at about this time that the earliest Vedas of Hindu religion became evident, though there is no single composer of them or founder of Hinduism as have many other religions.

The Hindu Religion is generally considered to be the oldest of all religions. Islam is one of the youngest of the major religions, with its origin in the life of Mohammed. At about the age of 40 and in the year 610 CE, it is believed by Muslims that Mohammed was fasting and praying in a cave near Mecca, in today’s Saudi Arabia, when he was visited by the Angel Gabriel and came to have the first words of the Qur’an tumble from his mouth.

Yet, major religious change has occurred far more recently. In the early 1500s, various protests against orthodox Catholicism led to a new “wing” of Christianity called Protestantism. Martin Luther nailed his “95 Theses” on the church door in Wittenberg, Germany in 1517. Today, new forms of Protestantism emerge every day, and the number of its adherents may be as high as 1 billion.

Luther at Erfurt, painting by J.N.Paton 1861. Doing good deeds do not get you to heaven, contended Martin Luther, only Faith in Jesus and then his free gift of grace and salvation do that trick: the Doctrine of Justification by Faith Alone is an orthodoxy.

There are an estimated 1.25 billion Hindus, but elements of Hindu practice such as Yoga and Meditation are more widespread. In fact, Hindu is Not primarily a religious doctrine, not an “ortho-doxy” (right doctrine), but an “ortho-praxi” (right practice); it is in that sense that I have been inspired to discuss it now at The Nature Religion Connection. HINDUISM IS BASICALLY RITUALISTIC: Right sounds/words, right movements, designated ceremonies and celebrations, but a variety of loosely associated and variously emphasized “beliefs” and “interpretations”.

The Indus Valley is often seen as the ancient seat of Indian Culture. Ironically, it is now the center of present-day Pakistan, an “Islamic Republic”. In 1947, the British colony of India was partitioned into two separate and independent states along religious lines. This ‘solution’ was at a great cost in lives, disruption and displacement to these two religious populations.

In previous posts, Folk Religion, The Strange Idea of..., and Folk Religion: Ritual as Memory Device and as Communal R & D, the role of Ritual in religions was discussed especially in ancient religion. Contemporary scholars of religion emphasize the essential role of religious-like rituals in the origination of language, social structure, personal identity, art and human group cooperation in general. These early humans had ideas, but more so these ideas were very vague and incipient; it was the actions, chants, movements, symbolic objects and ceremonies that were concrete and specific to them. Out of this generalized stew, we have today sorted out its more specific departments, ideas and focuses: religion, science, art, morality, politics…

Symbolic Objects from various Ancient Civilizations:

Figurine of Priest King from Indus Valley, 3,000 BCE.
Druidic “Ogham Staves” used in divination in Northern Europe. A variety of woods used in each set.
“Venus” figurine created by Homo sapien Cro-Magnon in Neolithic Europe, 35,000 years ago.

The focus of this post will be on Language. Philosopher Dan Dennett has contended that the origins of language go as far back as the origin of early forms of Religion and Ritual (some 35 to 40 thousand years ago) that he, and other investigators, have called “Folk Religion.” Folk religion lacks official doctrines and priestly hierarchies, but is large on ritual. After all, language is still rudimentary and in development, so there are no “doctrines.” It has been suggested in the posts mentioned previously that what was “taken” by these early humans as “religion” was also language development and many other activities too: art, social role development, and the beginnings of abstract thought.

(Depictions of Civilization in the late Paleolithic Period with the dawn of Agriculture and then in the Neolithic period, with the discovery of metallurgy.)

Proto-Indo-European (PIE) Language

The ancient common ancestor of Greek, Sanskrit, Iranian (Persian), Germanic (includes English), Anatolian (Turkish and Mesopotamian) and Romance languages is the Proto-Indo-European language. Our understanding of PIE is a reconstruction derived from the common elements of the 140 languages (includes the above) that form the Indo-European Family of Languages. This reconstruction is also based on recognized shifts in pronunciation, as in the shift within the Germanic languages from the German “d” as in “ding” and “danke” to the English “th” as in “thing” and “thanks”.

PIE is believed to have been spoken as far back as 5,000 BCE (7,000 years ago) in the Late Neolithic Era and may have continued to about 2,500 BCE, the Early Bronze Age. Ancient Greek and Sanskrit are considered to be two of its most ancient daughter languages. Below are some of the tell-tale similarities in vocabulary.

AN AMAZING FAMILY OF RESEMBLANCES! For the use of this chart, and majority of information on PIE and its people, THANKS to Jared Diamond and his 1992 The Third Chimpanzee; see the excellent chapter entitled “Horses, Hittites, and History”.

PIE is hypothesized to have had a complex structure with “regular vowel variations” as in sing, sang, sung and their noun, song, and pronoun declensions such as “I”, “me”, “mine”. It did lack the definite and indefinite articles (“the” and “a”) and did place the verb at the end of the sentence or clause. It is hypothesized to have invented/discovered all the basic Phonemes of our language group. It seems that the Consonant sounds may have been the ‘easiest’ and earliest to have been agreed upon, with the Vowel sounds only developing — becoming more systematic — more slowly.

The Hindu Mantras as a Discovery and Appreciation of the Phonemes of this Human Language Cooperation

The basic Sounds of human-language cooperation in the Indo-European language tradition may not have originated in the Indus River Valley of Pakistan/India. Maybe the basic Mantras of Hinduism are an early appreciation and affirmation of the place these sounds play in our lives. Chanted sound vibrations, recognized as a huge progressive development, are at the core of Hinduism, the world’s oldest religion. Today, we might recognize this birth of language as the shift from simply biological life to cultural-biological life.

Dennett argues forcefully that Language-Based Communication is based in layers of Mutually Recognized and Agreed Upon Intentions. Like when telling a joke, the teller must be understood by the recipient as “joking”, the recipient must “get” the situation as a “joke” to “get” the joke. Often when a joke does not succeed, the recipient pauses and then realizes the intent of the joker, “Oh, you’re joking”, they realize and say, “now I get it!”

Theorists of communication often contend that “the order of intentionality” must go three and four layers deep: the speaker must understand and agree on the context for the speech act with the hearer: to greet, to inform, to request, to convince… Both must recognize that each is aware of the agreed upon expectations and that the speech act must comply with, and — then– be interpreted in that light. As a Teacher, one becomes keenly aware of the mutual expectations of the setting in terms of trust in the method and goal of the interaction shared by teacher and student. The relationship between Salesperson and Customer, also, has mutual expectations, but is far different than Teaching in terms of trust, goal, and appropriate methods of interaction.

Before more complex speech interactions can occur, the most basic one of working out the sounds to be used and the standards of acceptability for the range of vocalization that will “count”, must be established and agreed upon. This is Language as a Digital System, says Dennett, and this is a huge clue to the mechanism of its operation! Maybe the most basic chant of all, “Om”, is most illustrative of this point.

“Om”: The Primal Chant

It is like a phonics lesson. The first thing you read about the “Om”chant is that it is pronounced A-U-M; three separate but related sounds and mouth/throat/tongue placements. The “A” is “ahhh”, mouth round and open wider (please try it), as if ‘accepting the whole of reality,’ we are told. The “ahhh” rolls out from the back of your throat. The “U” is “oooh”, with your mouth closing more, lips pursing but still round. The sound still from the back of your throat, but now more focused and specifically directed. The “M” is the “mmm” sound, with the same “ahhh” and “oooh” sound coming from the back of your throat, but now with your mouth closing and your tongue moving to the top of your palate. With your tongue in this position the vibrations are now palpable and strong. Please try this.

Hindus believe the universe is basically vibration and the “Om” is its first sound. In the “Om”, we have three phonemes, basic Indo-European language sounds; but this is an over simplification because vowel sounds are much more complicated and controversial among linguists than consonant sounds. Some scholars speculate that the initial Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) operated with only two, or even one, of our vowel sounds! Actually, a fourth sound is insisted upon by the Hindu gurus, the modern embodiment of this Oral Tradition; they teach that the eventual Silence after the “mmm” is to be appreciated as important as any other element! Sound ends, and reality goes on beyond our perception of it.

“Om” is used as the introduction to many other Mantras and to the initiation and conclusion of many Yoga and meditational exercises.

Other Simple Mantra Chants

“Om Namo Narayanaya” is considered one of the most sacred of all Mantras; some consider it the most “powerful”. It is contended to penetrate to the basic unity of consciousness underlying all reality. Literally, it means “I bow to and honor Lord Narayana”. Lord Narayana is also known as Vishnu, the protection and preservation of all that exists. This chant is also specifically known for its sounds in the original Sanskrit and is, thus, in keeping with the theme of this post: The Basic Connection of Ritual/Religion to The Origins of Language. This mantra is called “the eight-lettered invocation”.

“Om Neti Neti”: A very short chant.

Also Translated as “Not this, not that”. Its explanation.
The Chant.

The Controversy of The Source of PIE

Hindu Doctrine regards their religion as having No Origin. To them it is eternal and the sounds of its mantras, that they so cherish, are The natural sounds of the universe, and in no way particular to them or their Language Family. But they are. Hindu Nationalists are today the only ‘scholars’ proposing that The Original Source of the Proto-Indo-European Language (PIE) arose in the Indus Valley and its early Aryan civilization. This position gains some credibility from the antiquity of Sanskrit; it is one of PIE’s earliest “daughters”.

The accepted theory of scholars around the world is The Out of The Russian Steppes Theory or The Kurgan hypothesis. The hugely influential geographer, Jared Diamond, explains that one of the leading clues to a language’s origins are words that it now contains that are obviously from a different source (see his The Third Chimpanzee, chapter 15). In American English, we now have words such as “Mississippi”, “Ohio” (which means “good river [or waters]” in the local indigenous language) and “Dakota”. These words indicate that English overtook a pre-established language.

How could a language originating from a culture north of the Black and Caspian Seas in the eastern and middle parts of Europe have such wide-ranging historical impact? We see no great pyramids there; we see no monumental aqueducts or coliseums in that region! We do find what we have called “Kurgans’, burial mounds traditional to this region stretching our in various directions.

The Kurgan Hypothesis argues that PIE originated in this purplish region and spread first eastward toward India and then westward into Europe.

The Horse and the Wheeled Cart

The language of these, the First Indo-Europeans, overran indigenous languages. How? The Horse and Wheeled Charts! These pastoral peoples were the first to domesticate the horse and use them for “Horse Power”! They prospered, and rolled out of Eastern Europe into the east toward India and then to the west. This advantage of the Domesticated Horse and the Wheeled Cart used in both battle and mundane transportation caused an expansion of these Mongolian peoples — Huns, Vandals, Visigoths — that lasted 5,000 years. They overran indigenous languages and replaced them to a telling degree.

(The Mongolian Horse Backed warrior and herder, top right. Burial “Kurgan Mounds“, left and left middle. The envisioned pastoral and herding camp of these Mongolian People, the first Indo-Europeans!)

So, what where these indigenous languages that were overrun? Diamond proposes that it was a situation analogous to recent New Guinea, that isolated Pacific island. This is one of Diamond’s original bases of study, and for which there have been recorded “nearly one thousand mutually unintelligible languages — including dozens with no known relation to each other or to any other language in the world”! It seems that people around the world evolved many different languages but few survived! In our case, a language group that consists of 140 languages, out out of the 5,000 languages that currently survive, is now spoken by half of the world’s population! This is a testament to Horse Power, at least initially.

One More Celebration of Sound and Dance

Krishna Das Music! You gotta give it 5 to 10 minutes; they really start to heat it up! A Celebration of Sound, Dance and Unity.

About two decades ago, when my eldest daughter was in High School, she wanted me to go with her to the local Krishna House, after her encounter with them at a festival in the campus area. I was eager to go; I had never been. We went some Saturday in the summer, late in the morning, as I recall. About 20 of us had gathered that day at the house, along with its eight or so residents. After some cordial greetings, the celebration slowly started in the living and dining rooms of the old brick house. We had been offered simple instruments; I chose a tambourine. Several of the residents were more elaborately equipped, one a hand-organ as shown in this video.

It started slowly and quietly, but soon picked up intensity. The temperature in the house was soon in the mid-eighties, no air con, and I started to pound the tambourine and sway to the chant as did my daughter. I do not remember the particulars of the chant that day but after about an hour, it slowed and then solemnly stopped. We were exhausted and I was wet with sweat. We clapped and smiled and all adjourned to the back patio where we were served a tasty and simple vegetarian meal. It was a lasting memory and a worthy experience, to which this post is testimony.

In Conclusion

Some philosophers and scientists are often mistaken. There are Truths available to us through our Social Interactions that are as Real as the universe presented to us by physics and chemistry. Human Cooperation through Sound and Language and Music and Dance is as real as anything, and in need of our explicit affirmation. That is our insistence on an Ethical Society. Persons work together. Positive human cooperation is the basis of all human interaction at its unique level. For example, Trump and his lies are harmfully parasitic upon our foundation of honest human interactions, which are the overwhelming majority. Science and philosophy—and ethics—are built upon honest linguistic interaction. Hey! Music and Art are the “egg” added to the batter that allowed Culture to Rise!

Rock On!

Focused on THE BIG CONNECTION, the naturereligionconnection.org !!!!

Folk Religion: Ritual as Memory Device and Communal R & D.

(Ritual has made an essential contribution to human solidarity. In Dan Dennett’s Breaking The Spell: Religion as a Natural Phenomena, the early workings of Ritual are described as the origin of Culture, itself. There is a big difference between biological change and evolution and cultural change. These early rituals, were they “religious”? They were many things at once —language creation, creation of group identities, myth-making, creation and clarification of social roles, and the beginning of abstract thought — all included in what Dennett broadly calls, “folk” religion. But does religion still have a useful role to play? Page references are occasionally add to enable further inquiry.)

Vervet monkeys are the most successfully studied primates in their natural habitat, according to Jarod Diamond in his The Third Chimpanzee. For example, they have a call for “eagle” and the troupe looks up; a different call for “cat” and the troupe runs up a tree. Nice, these “calls” are the origin of language, but also, ya gotta love those hairdos! They remind me of the Nuns that taught me at Assumption Grade School in the 1960s.

In the wild, Vervet monkeys have been observed to have as many as a dozen very specific calls, each with its referent, and each consistently responded to. But how did we get from a handful of conditioned communicative calls to the use of thousands of words built up into phrases, sentences, and scientific theories. It is like the old joke about “How to get to Symphony Hall?”, the answer, “Practice, son, practice!”

Ritual as Research and Development

Ritual was the bridge from biology to culture. That is a bold statement, partly because of its inaccuracy; nothing living ever completely escapes biology, and why would we want it to? To seek nourishment, to avoid harm, to feel, to want, to enjoy, to nurture surely is what life is about. But, a limitation is imposed upon us by “the biological point of view”; it is a limitation of goal and purpose. For biology, the goal is to successfully reproduce. Through the use of ritual, early humans — and maybe even proto-humans — began to imagine more possibilities for life.

The classic depiction of H. Sapiens Cro-Mgnon. Evidence clearly suggests these early humans were the first to have more complex language, a variety of tools and art, some 40,000 years ago. Painting from Lascaux Cave in France.

Early language-formation and ritual are probably closely tied. The basic phonemes of language were discovered in ritualistic events, I believe, but this a little beyond Dennett’s direct contention. And, with language in development, benefits started to accrue. “Language gave us the power to remind ourselves of things not currently present to our senses, to dwell on topics that would otherwise be elusive, and this brought into focus a virtual world of imagination”, writes Dennett. And, for our ancestors, Ritual was a “persistent —even obsessive— rehearsal and elaboration of some of their habits of thought.”(114). I contend that many of the basic skills of language where worked out out in ritualistic events.

Celtic Druids “Gathering the Sacred Mistletoe”, hand colored engraving. A highly esteemed social class in ancient Ireland, England and France, the Druids were religious leaders, political advisors, healers, and keepers of the ancient lore. Their “oral literature” was forbidden to be recorded in writing, even though written language was eventually available to them. Julius Caesar was one of the first to record any information about the Druids in his Commentary on the Gaelic Wars written in 50 BCE.

Oral language must be relatively easy to remember. Some few ‘words’ may have started as separate ‘calls’ but in the end, words cannot be unrelated and totally dissimilar to all the rest. There must be a system to words, it seems, in which a small group of standardized sounds (phonemes) are used repeatedly and built into various combinations. Standardized parts, these sounds, eventually form root words and even suffixes and prefixes. It took much time and practice to pound out language as a Digital System, contends Dan Dennett, almost 40,000 years of practice. Much of that work took place in communal ritual.

Section from the 18th century engraving by S.F. Ravenet, Conversion of The Druids to Christianity. The term “Druid” comes from Indo-European roots meaning “Oak-seer” or “Oak-knower.” In the first century C.E., the Druids and Druidic rituals were actively and successfully suppressed by the Romans in their provinces. The Druids, they were ‘into’ their trees and plants.

These early efforts in the development of language continue today with its ongoing growth, decay, and even extinction. Some speculate that one day every person on our planet will speak the same language. Yet now, Ritual has expanded far beyond any tie to Religion. Ritual exists in music, politics, science, education and various social ceremonies from birth to death to baseball.

A comic look at the Tree of Language Development by Minna Sundberg from My Modern Met site.

What is one of the most shocking aspects of Digitization is its tolerance. For example, no one makes the “buh” sound of “B” exactly the same as other English speakers, nor even exactly the same from one time to the next, yet almost all attempts ‘count as’ and are heard as, “B”. Dennett points out that bows, genuflections, and kowtows are never exactly ‘the same’ either, yet there is a general and expected range ‘that counts’ and there are even flourishes or new modifications that catch on and become fads and sometimes the new model of acceptability.

Neutrinos discovered. In a universe of these kinds of subatomic particles, what could a Mind possibly be? A neutrino is so small and evasive that it could travel through a mass of the metal lead several miles thick without interference. A Mind is not in that kind of a physical world. That is a Separate Vocabulary from the way and the circumstances in which we speak of minds. As physicist Sean Carroll contends, our best way to characterize The Big Picture is to talk of the physical world of physics, and then the many ways We find it useful to describe that world as it is real and useful to us from our human perspective. “Mind” is those particular perspectives laying beyond the physical perspective, but necessary to understand our situation.

Words, genuflections, and various other forms of ritual are what Dennett calls “Memes.” Memes are the stuff Mind is made of: Shared Behavioral Habits — our words, our clothing styles, our music, our cuisine and our industry. Mind is, like digitization above, a tolerant range of acceptability, a way ‘to take’ the physical world, but also a setting of limits. And The Minds we know of, and participate in — even going back into their origin in animals and plants — are all limited to a Particular Point of View, we can say. That which is outside that point of view, that range of sensitivity and awareness, we can now call “noise” or vagueness or even “cognitive dissonance” when it is most severe.

Social Custom, as “language”, “religion”, “art” and “industry”, is all a limited perspective for “us”, our group, or some particular group. We are lucky to have them — these particular perspectives — but surely our Cro-Mag ancestors never made the specific distinctions we are used to. “Religion”, “language”, “art”, “mate selection”, “social order”, and “industry” were common to them, but each activity was involved with the other and all were probably one, to them. It is in that sense that “Folk Religion” was a single and vague activity, but one fraught with varied and highly emotive implications.

The H. Neanderthal lived and interacted with our ancestors and still has lingering segments of DNA in our population. They became extinct at about the time of language origination, some 30 to 40,000 years ago. They are thought to have had only limited language, limited tool-making and no evidence of art. In a thousand years there are about 50 human generations. So, 40,000 times 50 equals 2,000,000 generations of humans since the passing of these, our cousins. That number of generations is a lot of “passing on” but also a lot of opportunity for shuffling, variation, loss, and refinement. Lack of language ability may have contributed to Neanderthal’s extinction.

Ritual as Memory Device

How did ‘we’ remember these new found social habits? After all, no one was taking notes! Communication, itself, was being discovered. Incredibly, Dennett explains the functioning of ritual as similar to the “copying fidelity” of computers (146). It is the “majority rules strategy” that mathematician John von Neumann applied to engineering, but which had long been known and utilized previously. It is called “multiplexing”, he says. For example, before the days of radios, navigators at sea on long voyages would always use three chronometers (time pieces that are highly accurate in spite of motion, temperature and other variables). If only one was used, how would you know it was accurate. If two, how to know which was accurate if they started to diverge. Three allows the majority to rule if divergence occurs. It is highly unlikely that two devises would both go wrong and wrong in the same way at the same time.

In ritual, people acting in unison works in the same way. No one needs to know the entire chant or dance or prayer, but the majority of participants at anyone point will know, and any minority divergence will quickly correct back to the norm. “It is no accident that religions all have occasions on which adherents come together to act in public unison in rituals…Any religion without such occasions would already be extinct” (Dennett, 147).

Ritual in Africa. Even with the coming of Christianity and Islam to Africa, many converts have not totally given up on their traditional African religious beliefs and rituals. Many “still turn to their local gods for help with traditional problems and situations.” (Quote and photo from Geography web site.)

Language, itself, was probably discovered in rudimentary form and then expanded, refined, memorized and passed on in this manner. Customs and what we would call “practical activities” were also re-enacted and rehearsed in ritual. The hunt, mate-selection, social organization, healing, birth and burial were all taken up symbolically in ritual. Oral Traditions were developed and “tales” of origins and ancestors were established. Dennett quotes researcher Scott Atran, “Humans, it appears, are the only animals that spontaneously engage in creative, rhythmic bodily coordination to enhance possibilities for cooperation” (141).

“Come on baby, let’s do the Twist…ya do it like this…ya, do the Twist!” sang Chubby Checkers in 1960.

Today we know that songs, prayers, speeches and many kinds of writing utilize rhythm and often rhyme, and this, too, was a discovery or invention long in the making and likely originating in forms of Ritual Events. Rhythm and rhyme are also memory aides and attention devises and like language had no individual inventor.

Now I Lay Me Down To Sleep: printed In The New England Primer. This primer was first published in about 1690 and was designed for use in the colonies. It replaced The Bible as the foundation of American education before 1800. Who has not heard it; who has not remembered it. The ritual of prayer, combined with rhythm and rhyme.

Now I lay me down to sleep,
I pray the Lord my soul to keep;
If I should die before I ‘wake,
I pray the Lord my soul to take.

Ritual from around the world and through time. Ritual is the Communal search for, and establishment of, Shared Behavioral Habits. These Shared Habits of attention, concern and coordinated behavior, built upon our biological needs and abilities to establish what we commonly consider today as Human Mind.

THE NATURERELIGIONCONNECTION. .ORG————The Zinnia Flower, photo by GregWW

“Folk Religion”,The Strange Idea of…

(In the previous Religion post, “Believing in Believing in God“, the modern dilemma of religious belief was presented. “Gods” don’t easily fit in our modern world. In response “god” has become some very vague idea believed in, but on which little depends; or “god” becomes highly specific —the Jesus of the Bible, or the teachings of the Koran— and a highly charged belief because now in tension and conflict with science, sexual equality and so many other modern social trends. In the following post, the origins of religion will be considered as “naturally” arising and closely connected to the the origin of Culture, itself!)

(A “Venus” figurine, dating back 40,000 to 35,000 years ago, from Germany. Cro-Magnon humans were fascinated by pregnant women and childbirth! Shucks, I wonder why? Even with all our science and medicine, it is still Utterly Amazing and Attractive!)

Is There A Kind Of Religion That Is “Natural” To Humans, or at least natural in the history of humans? That is a strange idea, but one championed by theorist Dan Dennett. Dennett is One Of Our Most Outspoken Atheists, yet in his scientific theory of religion, he gives “Good Reasons” for the occurrence of religion, and maybe even its continued existence—-in at least some form!

“Good Reasons” are akin to a theoretical term of his; more precisely they are “free-floating rationale”, by which he means The Purpose that a functioning object serves. The object’s purpose is real and yet not so real at the same time! The purpose of a thing is expressed by the organization of its parts and it is Not one of those parts itself. It is “free-floating” in that sense; it is like ‘the focal point’ of the parts, as if they were ‘gazing upward at the larger system they are a part of, seeking to understand their role and the meaning of it all.’ Gee, sounds kind of Religious already!

The Venus of Willendorf: These early humans “gazed and sought to discover the role they were to play and the meaning of it all” —- but actually, these Cro-Magnon probably had very little to think about in those terms. That was way too abstract for them, way too vague, in my opinion. The figurine is shown from all four sides and is from the “Old Stone Age”, the Upper Paleolithic, and thus dating back to around 25,000 years ago. A beautiful lady. How did Super Models ever become so popular? (The use of the name “Venus” is a term from traditional archeology and associated with the Greek mythology that did not appear until 20,000 years later. Some professionals question that term’s value and appropriateness.)

Dennett contends that religion served a purpose, or at least evolved for good reasons. In Breaking The Spell, Religion as a Natural Phenomena, it is refreshing to find the typical dismissive ‘explanations’ of religion, dismissed as too simplistic. One contends religion is just a bad explanation for things that some people can’t explain in better ways (103). “So get to work and find some real answers,” we might say. Two, religion is just an attempt to make us feel better. “Too bad, life is tough and it ends; so suck it up and stop making up silly stories,” the realists say. Three, religion helped, and still helps, people work and live together; it promotes cooperation. The famous French sociologist, Emile Durkheim with his functionalist theories, contended this was religion’s social purpose. In response, it is easy to point out all the times that differing religions have fought, hated each other, and expressed their differences in conflict and not cooperation.

So, religion is based not in our ignorance and is not primarily inaccurate explanation, and religion is not just a salve for our disappointment and fears. These are not good scientific explanations of religion according to Dennett. These are not good Evolutionary Explanations of a phenomena so prevalent, so complexly organized and so “expensive.” Anything that lasts that long and becomes so prominent in the population and consumes so much time and effort must have some benefit for survival for someone or something. There maybe some truth to these dismissive explanations but they don’t cut deep enough. Religion as promoting human cooperation does a little better, we shall see.

Dennett’s theory is that the religious impulse is based in a powerful and helpful human instinct (112). In that sense, this instinct is accurate and efficient, even though it has been misapplied often. It is the instinct to regard the complex events around us as instigated by human-like agents; agents or actors somewhat like ourselves and motivated by reasons — in their heads — somewhat like ours. We “see” other persons in this way, of course; and also animals, but even plants to some extent. When we get to the cosmos at large, and ‘the storms at sea’ for example, then “we”, various humans now and in the past, were and are mistaken to regard them personally. But Religion, in this earliest form, is “Folk Religion,” says Dennett, and it is this projection of agency, of the acts of agents, out into the world.

Our artist, the Cro-Magnon, creator of the Venus figurines. Came to Europe 48,000 years ago as the first Homo sapiens and interacted with, and interbred with, H. neanderthalensis who then went extinct by 38,000 years ago. Cro-Mags created the first Paleolithic culture we have significant evidence for, and are the direct ancestors of today’s modern European.

Folk Religion is not the highly organized and institutionalized religion of today. It lacked “stewards” or at least the same degree of “professionalization” and hierarchy that we see often. Though it had its priests, “shaman”, it had no Bishops or Popes or leaders of rabbinical schools, or Imams. It had no highly standardized creed.

Dennett makes an initial characterization of it as “social systems whose participants avow belief in a supernatural agent or agents (God or gods) whose approval is to be sought” (9). Curiously, this is connected by Dennett to the evolution of a very real, but equally mysterious ‘thing’, The Human Mind. This primitive form of religion, folk religion, was part of the development of our uniquely human way of being with other humans as highly social, communicating, technology-driven, cultural animals. The Mind is our way of being together and “religion” played a role in that development. These early humans saw “persons” everywhere; agents with motives that you could possibly negotiate with!

The Value of Ritual

Much of what we do, that is unique to us as humans, is based in Language. Folk Religion is as old as language and even some of the proto-languages that undoubtedly preceded it until language itself was well enough structured and established to stand alone. Folk religion and its Ritual may have been like a scaffolding that supported these early developments.

Time Line of Cultural Milestones

  • Proto-Language and Language itself: 40,000+ years ago
  • Folk Religion: origin 40,000 to 25,000 years ago
  • Agriculture: 10,000 years ago
  • Metalworking: 8,000 years ago
  • Written Language: 5,000 years ago

Evolutionary Biological Advances are based in our genetic code. Evolutionary Cultural Advances are based in our linguistic codes. Biological advance starts in mutations of the DNA code and if accompanied by successful bodily or behavioral expressions, they are selected. They then are not easily lost, that is the very definition of success; they are passed down to further generations genetically.

But what of early Cultural Advances? They were not recorded in our DNA nor in any written language, because written language was itself a rather late developing cultural advance. How did Cultural Advances persist? How were they passed on to future generations when even oral language was still in formation? Ritual is the answer: group based, oral, rhythmic, bodily movement-based, repetitive, highly emotive, expressive events.

(Rituals, from top left to right. Hindus of India speaking to the ancestors in an effort to attain health and healing through the management of intergenerational karmas. Shia Muslim mourning the death of their prophet at the annual Ashura commemoration in Iraq. Courtship ritual of the Wodaabe people of Niger. Occur once a year, men dress and make themselves up and are judged by available females. Bottom, speaking in tongues in the U.S.A.)

(In the following post in this series on Dan Dennett’s scientific theory of religion as a natural object, the contribution of Religious Ritual to the formation of Culture will be presented.)

Even today, The Mystery and Wonder of Childbirth.
GETTING RELIGIOUS here at THE CONNECTION!

Stay Safe! The Virus is On The Roll here in Ohio! ALSO, “NO” TO DONALD TRUMP!!! Throw the Bum Out!!!!!!

“Believing in Believing in God”

Baby Jesus: my grandmother loved The Baby Jesus, profoundly.

Do you “Believe in God?” Well, of course you do. It is almost impolite to say otherwise. But I mean, Do you “believe that God really exists?”, or better, answer yes/no to “Does God exist?” Does this second form of the question change anything?

Recently I decided to reread Dan Dennett’s, Breaking The Spell: Religion as a Natural Phenomenon. Dennett is a philosopher and “Theorist extordinaire.” In many different topic areas, he does not simple review the literature and speculate, he puts forth research proposals. That is what he is doing here for religion and he uses the phrase quoted in this title. He is laying out a wide-ranging theory of religion that he hopes will be empirically investigated. It involves aspects of cognitive psychology, sociology, linguistic behavior, archeology, anthropology and even economic history. On my first reading (2007 or so), I did not adequately appreciate that this book is Applied Philosophy!

Dennett contends there is an important distinction in the above two questions. The first mostly speaks to Your Beliefs, Your State of Mind. Yes, many of us do have a Belief in a god or even gods. But when you are asked, “Does God exist?”, this sharpens the issue a bit. It suggests “Where does God exist?” or “How does God exist?” or “What is God,” and “Can you point him out?” It suggests that maybe we are wrong to think in terms of “Him” and not Her or It.

The decoration of the dome of a mosque in Iran. God as suggested by a geometric pattern.

Orthodox Jews do not even speak a name for ‘god’, or write one; that would be too concrete, too much making “GD” like an ordinary thing. Muslims do not picture Allah, or even Mohammed; best to leave visual imagery of God to the beautiful arabesques that adorn their mosques. In fact, Dennett points out that today in many religions it is standard doctrine not to ask for, or expect, a lot of good specific answers on the character, nature, location and qualities of god or gods. Whenever very specific and invasive queries come up, the doctrine of mystery is invoked. God is infinite and incomprehensible, and therefore, by definition, ‘hard to pin down.’

Ganesha, Hindu god of connection to the universe’s basic and beneficial energy.
Ancient Egypt’s main god, Amon Ra. Carrying the Ankh, the symbol or key of life. The Sun is atop his head, his head depicted as a goat or a bird or a bearded man (I do not know why the variation). He eventually became know as the creator of all things, including himself.

The earlier human gods were much more specific and concrete in their looks and actions, than our current ones. They lived in specific places like atop Mt. Olympus or like the Norse god, Odin, in an enormous and majestic ceremonial hall called Valhalla. They looked like real things or combinations of things, a human body with a falcon head, for example. Even the god of the Old Testament became angry, jealous, and intervened in human affairs often and obviously, turning people into pillars of salt or strolling in the Garden of Eden. Consider the seven plagues cast upon Egypt forcing Pharaoh to “let my people go!”, all very concrete and accredited behaviors and events.

Charlton Heston parts the waters in The Ten Commandments movie. I wish God would act so obviously and boldly today! (This is possibly the most expensive special effect of all time. Director C.B. DeMille filmed the pouring of 300,000 gallons of water into a tank and then used that by playing it backwards). A good movie, the classic depiction of the Bible.

But with the triumph of Monotheism and more modern times, gods have become more abstract, more withdrawn from the world, and with this has come the problem of How, Where and even Why must God actually exist?

Belief in Belief

For some ‘believers’, any specific affiliation with a designated religion has been dropped, and a stripped-down sense of “Spirituality” is all that remains. For them, god need not even be “God” but now just a satisfying sense of “a higher power” with virtually no clarification or specificity.

For other ‘believers,’ it is now most important that they, and you and I, just Believe In Believing In God irrespective of whether he, she or it actually exists. It is more a social thing, than a real out-there-in-reality-somewhere kind of thing. It’s part of being good in company. You say, “Yes, I’m Catholic or Episcopalian…” and you wake up every Sunday morning and go to church. You see some acquaintances there and chat. When in distress you say a quiet prayer or two. You try to insure that your children believe the same as you. And that’s about the whole religion thing, for you.

In Dennett’s book, the above is described by some theorists as “a low investment”, “less intense” religious experience. The question of God’s actual existence tends to not come up. This mild form of belief is itself enough, and great doubt is generally not an issue. Other religions may exist and other people may believe differently but that is not an affront to you and your low intensity belief.

Going “High Investment”

But there is another way to deal with the modern problem of the actual existence of your god and you belief in him, her or it. That is to go “high intensity” and “high investment.” If you invest all your savings in one particular stock, that stock — whether it eventually succeeds or fails — is very valuable to you. Participation in a cult or sect is much the same. High investment in time, energy, commitment and even money makes your belief in that group very valuable to you. Any wavering in that belief is a crisis,; it puts in jeopardy all the previous effort.

So in groups like these, belief maintenance is a huge endeavor. A favorite device is “us against them.” “Circle the wagons’, we are under siege; they are all out to get us” is the mentality. Christian Fundamentalists and Evangelicals use this tactic. In an upcoming post I will discuss a sermon delivered by the pastor of a fast rising Columbus area “mega-church.” “As people who follow Jesus…who follow the biblical view of life…(Mathew tells us) ‘You will be hated not just by someone, but by everyone’,” Pastor Chad Fisher tells his congregation.

Fundamentalist Muslims have made great use of the claim that “western powers” seek to destroy Islam. Considering the history of imperialism there is some truth to it, though Islam’s very conservative doctrinal and sociological structure has also led to much tension with a modernized world.

The Qur’an, or Koran, is considered a highly specific and highly charged sacred object. Many of its passages begin with “I” or “we” indicating that it is the literal speech of Allah. Before the Koran is touched, a ritual washing of hands is to occur and it is always to be stored in a safe and respectful manner. If damaged or worn, it is to be disposed through burial or burning.

Finally, one of the other strategies to overcome the modern loss of specificity and intensity in religious experience is the return to (or maintenance of) a very specific religious symbol. To conservative Christians The Bible and its Jesus are literally, and in all its detail, taken as true and existent. Other forms of Christianity with varied beliefs are then simply wrong, mistaken, as are non-Christian religions to an even greater extent. Islam, too, uses the teachings of Mohammed and the Koran in this manor.

This is “a higher intensity” and “higher investment” religion. Not only have these believers placed themselves in opposition to other religions but also to other cultural forces and institutions that they see as a threat. Conservative Muslims contend much in Western Culture is evil and a threat to their way of life. Conservative Christians have objected to the aspects of science they see in conflict with the Bible: geology, evolutionary biology and even cosmological astronomy. Liberal Government has been one of their foes because of its support for tolerance of diversity in sexual orientation, support for some aspects of women’s rights, and the insistence on a stricter division between church and state on various issues.

Much the same can be said for more radical forms of Islam. In each case, the “value” of these religious experiences is high. Much time, energy, social status and even money is, and can be, invested in the maintenance of these tension-filled beliefs for you and your fellow congregants. These are some of the ways that vivid and strong belief is created. When other cultural forces are then also challenged, the ground is cleared for not only strong belief but the assertion of the existence of that god.

It is Intense, but Is it ‘True’?

What is curious about this analysis of religion is the question of its “Truth” is forestalled. When Religion is treated as a Natural Phenomenon, the mechanisms for its appearance and maintenance will be sought and it becomes less clear how an evaluation of its truth will occur and what it will be. It is natural. Religion starts to serve more of a function for people and for their society. The question may start to shift from its “truth” to how well religion does at its job. Is its job to “find” a “God” that exists independently of us? Is its job to create and maintain some different relationship between people that includes the universe beyond them?

My Wonderful and Long Gone Grandmother

Somewhere around the year of 1975, I came from college and dropped in on my family who were visiting my mother’s mother and her side of the family in Pittsburg Pennsylvania. I was decked out with my long hair pulled into a pony tale, wearing worn jeans with a fringe added at the bottom, and maybe even a tie-dyed tee shirt (if not I might as well have been, for that was the whole point, l guess). In those days I was determined to speak honestly and clearly to all people about my opinions, sometimes whether I was asked or not.

Steel mills in Pittsburg in the early 1900s.

My mom’s mom, Grandma Surenda, was the matriarch of the family. Her husband had died many years earlier when I was only 5 or so. He was an administrator with The U.S. Steel Corp., the largest steel company in the largest steel producing city in the world. He left them fairly well off.

She owned a large brown brick, perfectly rectangular, three story home, on a corner lot where two hills met. One formed a long flat stretch that was Middletown Rd while the other hill pushed on higher just beyond the intersection that ended with Grandma’s house. Four roads came together there, three of them were inclined—two down, one up. Pittsburg is a city of hills. I remember laying in bed in that house as a child, listening to the city busses and large dump trucks roaring their engines, working to climb those hills. Trucks were always hauling something around Pittsburg, in those days.

In that house lived five adults for much of my childhood. Uncle Richard was a short round man who never married and worked at a large factory making industrial equipment. Aunt Thelma was my mother’s sister and lived in the large attic bedroom with her husband Bill. They owned three small dry cleaning shops that Uncle Bill operated, while Aunt Thelma did the books by day for a textile wholesaler and by night for the cleaning shops. They often had piles and piles of coins laying about that we would help them count. They never had children of their own, but when we visited they would adopt the whole crew of their nieces and nephews and take us nightly for ice cream, snow cones and to the amusement park with all the kids riding in the back of the dry cleaning delivery truck.

Of course, Grandma Surenda lived there but so did her mother, Great Grandmother Spirko! In her late 80’s and then early 90’s, she was actually the first on the matrilineal side to come to the US from Slovakia. I later learned that she told a story of how the Hungarian army arrived in Slovakia (in the mid 1800’s, I believe) and forced many changes including speaking and writing in Magyar only, not Slovak. Eventually she left as a teenager for America, as did many other Slovaks. When I was seven or eight, I remember her always sitting in her arm chair by the the large expanse of windows in the dining room taking in the sun. She was always dressed in a long almost ankle-length black dress, black stockings, white blouse, and black sweater mostly buttoned. It was the manner of dress for women in the old country. As I search my memory, I don’t remember her ever talking to me, simply sitting.

Pittsburg is a hilly city. It is here that the Monongahela joins the Allegheny to form the Ohio River. In the Iroquian language, “Ohio” means “good river”.

My Grandmother Surenda, eventually—later in her life after Grandma Spirko died, went to Catholic Church every morning for mass. In fact, she was the first there and was in charge of opening the doors even before the priest walked over from the rectory. To do this, she walked. She was in her seventies and walked about a quarter of a mile straight down the first level of the two hills that met at her house and straight back up when mass was over. The church sat at the bottom of that hill.

Grandma was a short lady but tough and very determined. She was generous, always helping her extended family financially in any time of need. I always remember her either cooking or doing laundry, though she did have her soap operas she followed and she loved local Big Time Wrestling. She would yell at the television as Handsome Johnny Barron (“a bad guy”) would pull an object from his trunks and poke it into Bo Bo Brazil’s eye (“a good guy”). Handsome Johnny would never get caught by the referee, and he always wore a net over his slicked-back silver hair when not in the rink. Grandma, by contrast, always wore a house dress with stockings and those prototypical old lady shoes that tied and yet had a short thick two inch (?) heal. That road down to the church and back had no sidewalk. It was two lanes with a narrow gravel berm on each side. She walked it five days a week in those shoes, on Sunday Uncle Richard drove her and often slept in the car while she attended.

The Nativity, the birth of Jesus in an animal stable; tale basic to all Christian religions. Very much like my Grandmother’s nativity scene.

Thelma and Bill, and most of the family, were very religious, also. When Christmas time approached out came a large Manger Setting that was placed in the yard at its most prominent corner. As a child we would frequently visit, making the five hour drive from Ohio, and I will always remember arriving in Grandma’s neighborhood from the very top of the second hill. Night had fallen as we drove, so as we drove down the hill suddenly Grandma’s house and its glistening manger scene would come into view. It sent a shiver through us all.

That setting was large. The stable itself was six feet tall (2m) and over ten feet (3-4m) long and made of wood. Some of the paper mache figures stood as tall as four feet (150 cm). There were several sheep and a shepherd boy, and an angel or two. There were The Three Magi, one kneeling, who supposedly “followed the star of Bethlehem” to join the birth, along with a camel a meter tall. Joseph, the ‘father’ of Jesus (scare quoted for several reasons), stood in the middle, and Mary, the virgin mother knelt. In the very middle, of course, was The Manger, the feeding trough that served supposedly as His bed; it was actually filled with straw and in it The Baby Jesus — The Son of God, God Become Man — depicted very much as the figurine at the head of this story. Straw was strewn across the ground and the scene was lit by three or four ground-mounted spot lights and a “star” lit at the apex of the stable. It was quite a crowd and quite a scene.

I believe that when my Grandmother thought of God and Jesus, it was in that form, as a baby, an infant. In her dinning room corner, year round, was also a plaster statue of the infant Jesus, standing and looking very knowing and mature for a two-year old. They dressed it in finely made garments and changed them several times a year. The child had a real diamond ring on a finger extended skyward. To my Grandmother, that was a very real God and one she believed in with all her might.

This was the God that my Grandmother loved and worshiped, and could not bear to think of its non-existence or my disbelief.

That was the house, the family and the situation I walked into those many years ago as a young man. One of our great family traditions was to gather many, many, family members around a very large dining room table for huge dinners. The centerpiece was often homemade chicken soup loaded with chicken, carrots, celery and onions. Served on the side, and indispensable, were homemade chicken liver dumplings. All the kids followed Uncle Bill’s lead and added ketchup to sweeten the soup. Almost twenty relatives could be in attendance on a Saturday night dinner such as that.

But it was Not on one of those huge evenings back in 1975, but a smaller lunch, that the topic came up and I broke the news. “I no longer believe in god,” I said. Maybe it was my mother that quickly tried to intervene and soften the blow and qualify my statement. I do not remember many of the specifics, but somehow I was led to say it. There was a pause, then Grandma burst into tears and rushed from the room. She hurried down the stairs, crying, into the basement from which arose a wail that was heard by all. “My heart is breaking,” she cried out. I looked at everyone, everyone looked at me. I slowly walked down into that basement intent on trying to console that dear old lady.

I do not remember what I actually said, nor much of the outcome. I believe I told her things would be OK, that I was a good person and that was what was most important. I may have tried to diminish the certainty of my disbelief; I just wanted that beautiful old lady to stop crying. She eventually did, and I hugged her. The topic was not brought up again. The family visit went on, though somewhat awkwardly.

“High Intensity Belief”

As I thought about this story and began writing it, I discovered a surprising fact. I had always thought that this adamant belief in Jesus as an infant was personal and idiosyncratic to my Grandmother. It was not. The Slovaks and the Czechs have a Catholic tradition going back to the 17th century based upon what they call The Infant Jesus of Prague. It is a 19-inch (48cm) wooden statue with wax coating and a silver-coated base. It is currently housed at The Church of Our Lady Victorious in Prague.

The Prazske Jezalatko (in Czech, Infant Jesus of Prague) cared for by the Carmelite Nuns who possess hundreds of imperial-styled regalia donated by supplicants seeking the favor of The Infant.

The statue has received various Papal sanctions establishing its sacred status and is particularly venerated at Christmas and on the first Sunday of May when it is carried through the streets. Numerous miraculous events are attributed to it, including the rescue of Prague from the invading Swedish army in 1639.

Little did I know what I was getting into in 1975! I was attempting to diminish a high intensity, highly invested, very specific, long held religious experience and tradition. It was far different than the mild “belief in belief” or the vague but comforting affiliation to “a higher power.”

Virgin and Child, by William-Adolphe Bouguereau 1888, France. SOME CALL THIS GOD!

Some other background info:

In 1993 Czechoslovakia divided peacefully into two separate nations. In the northwestern region of the Czech Rep. can be seen the famous city of Prague located on the Vltava River. Adding to the curiosity of this connection is the fact that at the end of WWI the nation of Czechoslovakia was formed with an agreement worked out and signed in Pittsburg, Pa. —“The Pittsburg Agreement” — between Czech and Slovak political parties. The negotiations and meeting organization was accomplished with the help of their supporters in various Slovak and Czech American immigrant organizations, several of which were based in Pittsburg. Between 1860 and 1918, about one million Czechs and Slovaks left their homeland, many of them settling in the big industrial cities in the middle of the U.S — like Pittsburg, but also Cleveland!
The modern Eastern European map. See the middle for Slovakia and Czech Republic.
NATURERELIGIONCONNECTION.ORG : Islamic art from an Iranian Mosque.

The Nature Religion Manifesto

(We are smoke’n hot this morning here at The Connection!  A short post, And Already Once Revised!  I’ve been searching for a simple statement that gets to the point of what this blog site is about; maybe this is it.  Most of you will think it far fetched, yet there is a Logic to it and it stretches way back into Philosophic Tradition.  Try it on for size, Please!)

IMG_4583 (2)
The Backyard Sanctuary: Design Does Exist in Our World.  Photo by GWW.

In the spring and summer, each morning I take my cup of coffee and walk about our backyard garden.  I carefully inspect its progress from the previous day.  New shoots have appeared, old flowers fading, a weed to be pulled, new blooms opening and admired.  Various birds fly by and others are calling.  I stop and consider the weather, very pleasing, but other times not.  Too cool, or too wet, we are often in need of a few sunny days.  In either case, my plants soldier on and I consider what I should do to improve this beautiful place, our garden, our backyard sanctuary.

It is not a “strictly physical” place, not simply particles and chemical reactions and the qualities that those kinds of things directly exhibit.  This garden of my wife’s and mine is a human place of beauty with carefully selected plants, well considered placements, precisely cut borders and gently curved walkways.  A chosen mixture of both sun and shade, privacy and open sky.  A fairly complete composition, though always shifting.

It is a place of life.  Plants exhibit the most marvelous design.  Crocus poke up their heads in spring, first, with their delicate little flowers.  Then come the Daffodil with their trumpeting flower and the Tulip with its gracious cup, marked interior, and array of color.  In the shade, the Ostrich Ferns are unraveling their fronds, rolling them toward the light.  The Painted Ferns exhibit on each leaf detailed shades of green slowly verging on blacks.  In front of our long row of Hosta, my wife plants her border of Impatiens, an annual that flowers through the summer and produces best in shade.  The Empress Wu hosta is our crowning jewel.  Sitting back beneath our cottonless (male) Cottonwood tree, the Empress crowns at over three feet into the air and spreads more than eight feet in diameter.  She is a tremendous mound of foliage with each highly ridged bright green leaf running 18 to 20 inches long and a foot wide.  All her bio-mass bursting forth each spring from below the ground and fully in place by mid June. By August, she has finished with her rather insignificant flowering (to the gardener) and by fall is ready to be cut back to do it all over the next year.

IMG_5144 (2)
Glorious Morning Morning Glory, photo by GWW

Each plant is a tidy package It circles about itself in its own little cycle.  The perennials (above) — the crocus, daffodils, tulips, ferns and hosta — all have a prolonged life cycle lasting many years, but go through a distinct annual cycle, also.  The annual (above) — the Impatiens — completes its life cycle in a single season, but ends that cycle with a group of seeds, which are the Reproduction of “its form— its tidy package — into the future. It is as if part of itits Information — never dies!

Basically, fundamentally, essentially, a plant and its environment are a cooperative, self-enhancing effort.  It is not that they — the plant and its environment — always “get it together” or always “keep it together”; they do not.  There are “bad” seasons and difficult “spells”; but “at their core”, The Good MUST Out Weigh The Bad.  That much is inherent in the idea of Natural Design.  If Designs are real in nature, then any design, if it exists, is Good, is Functional; Better than a vast number of alternatives, but maybe not quite as good as some Possibilities that we can vaguely imagine.  This is the core of The Nature Religion Connection: If a lack of coordination and cooperation (Dis-Function, Chaos) were the predominant “tone” of the world, then complex entities like “plants” would not exist, nor would we!  “The world” is fundamentally Good, at least from our point of view, and, thereby, it becomes “Our World”.

So, to reproduce is a distinctly living feature, but so are several others.  To metabolize is to be so open to ‘your’  environment, that large parts of it are essential to ‘your’ continuation.  You stretch forth into them, but not into others; those seem completely irrelevant.  Light, water, carbon dioxide and soil with minerals, all are open to the plant in a cooperative and informative way: They are essential parts of it; they are components of the plant’s Design.  They are it, in many a way.

And to grow is to be alive, and that takes time.  A flowering plant only eventually flowers.  An animal only eventually becomes sexually mature, and a human only eventually becomes emotionally and intellectually mature.  Pulling together diversity into the unity of its form; Time is essential to life: It does not exist in an instant.   To be sensitive is the means by which living things distinguish this In-Formation from the noise; it’s self from others.  Life is these unique qualities.

(Crocus in the Snow and in the Sun. Photos by GWW)

A star, a volcano, a galaxy, an atom, our solar system, the various chemical elements do none of these: No reproduction, no metabolism, no growth, no sensitivity.  A star may swell and then collapse, as it runs out of (‘eats’) its fuel and ‘dies’.  A volcano can grow larger and even blow or become dormant.  An atom may bond.  Our solar system certainly cycles.  But none of these have all the characteristics of life, nor in as regular or systematic a way as do a living kind, and especially a person.

So, no God is needed: My wife and I will do.  We foresee rain and frost; we fertilize and occasionally spray.  We split and weed, and plant seed.  We trim and choose, and rule our tiny spot, but not — as one such other.  Mother Nature framed this scene, and with her choices will be queen.  But at least, I see my debt and live to fill her coffers.

It’s a special place, Our World, The World of Life and Persons.  It is Our Response, and Ability, to keep it such and MORE;  and pass it to our future kind for ashes soon we be.  For after all, we are a ‘food’ in this Giant Chain of Being — of what shall come hereafter, we made a contribution, too.

IMG_5097 (1)

All photos by GWW from the garden of Sheri and Greg.

cropped-img_34702-e1565808476815-11
Logo Drawing by Marty

.

What Connects the Universe? Is it “Love, love, love…”?

beatles-paisley-brandeis-edu-again
“Love” is a form of Information.  It is how persons Shape themselves, and in one of the finest ways!  Causes also play a role, but it is confused to say that Love is caused by atoms or chemical reactions.  Love is caused by things at its own level of vocabulary, like “need”, “sociability” and “physical and emotional attraction”.  We also know, at its level, it is ’caused’ by Magic, Luck, and ‘the way you looked that night with the light glowing in your hair!’       Ha cha, cha, chaaaa!

(Nope!  Love is not all ya need when connecting the universe, but it is suggestive of a good answer.  Short post.  It suggests a basic contrast that helps ‘fill in’ our world from the deficit suggested by the ‘Causes cause everything view.”  That view that Science is all, pejoratively known as Scientism, is not advocated here.  So if it’s not “All we need is Love!”; it’s more like all we need is Causes And Information!  And love is a kind of informing, so good enough.             

I would like to thank Rom for his frequent comments on NatieRel, without them I would not have come to such a concise and clear –I hope– statement of our metaphysical situation.  This is a response to his criticism of some of my positions as can be seen on his blog: rom’s corner, the “Monism” post, but it has been slightly modified upon rereading and publishing here..)

Below is my response to his comment that I do not appreciate that the things of our everyday world — us, horses, houses,— are the whole things that are made of parts which are sub-atomic objects.  This is a confusion of levels, I say.  To Rom, wholes are caused by their subatomic parts.  I say, first and foremost, us and horses and houses have parts like “hearts” and “legs” and “foundations” that are their parts in their Design.  Only in an extended sense are their parts atoms or quantum waves.  Here is my reply:

“I’m glad to see you (Rom) are allowing for different levels of things. So much is obvious. The issue is how to connect them. How do they interact? Your hunch “causation” is not a big enough idea to do it sufficiently, I believe.
And this is not your problem alone. Science ‘wants’ to understand everything as causes and that is why Compatiblist philosopher’s argue science is a “one-sided” point of view. In the world as only particles of physics and reactions of chemistry, a “viewer” that ‘sees’ different levels does not exist, only particles and reactions exist. A “viewer” of added levels is a mind, and can be compatible with science objects but also importantly different!”

“But for biology, psychology and sociology, this lack of viewer And Agent ——because Having a Point of View IS Agency, Rom (got ya! Don’t I?) —- starts to debilitate their ‘science’. That is why they are the ‘soft’ sciences. In psychology that is where Behaviorism came from, to toughen it up, to diminish the role of subjectivity. Yet, behaviorism has been largely dismissed as an insufficient overall psychological approach, especially by most psychologists. Agency forces itself on these disciplines, at least to a larger degree.”

“Philosophy has traditionally picked up the ball, to get to this other side of things. I have come to realize recently, and in part thanks to our correspondence, that a good way to frame it —the other side to causation—- is Information! Our world, especially, but the universe, also, with its other life Forms, is both connected by causes and by information. Anything with a Point of View and thus Agency is not only being caused but also being Informed! Agents are designed things, and they have made something particular out of the generalized universe of physics and chemistry!”

“So, the complex things of the world are designed and, therefore, are informed.  Physicist S. Carroll, in his philosophy of Poetic Nationalism, says the relationship of higher level realities to the baseline physics reality is “usefulness”.  The higher levels make use of it for their purposes. Philosopher D.Dennett, argues “Information is design that is worth (the designed object’s –gww) getting.” Info is worth going after, because it functions to support and enhance the designs that exist all around us and in us too!  Whole things are Associated with their lower level ‘components’, like atoms; but they Emerge from them, and they and their Designs are not caused by them.  From the p. of v. of physics, all these Particular Shapes and Forms and Designs are blurred out, indistinguishable, amid the one big form, the universe!  But as we exist, we look out and see directly that which is pertinent to us; it is Our In-Formation in that biggest of all show.

“So, Rom, the universe is both caused and informed, probably each at the same time. Your “causes only” view, does it have anything to say about Info other than it’s just causes by a different (confused) name? Right now, I think the most fruitful way to understand what we are doings, is not cause each other to believe anew, but inform each other to do so.”

“Thank you, Rom, for the fruitful dialogue!
Yours truly, GregWW”

8b138ba93671fc9229ea67c7f2670357
Rhythms, by Robert Delaunay,

What’s in a Prayer?

the-annunciation-george-hitchcock

(The Annunciation, by George Hitchcock, 1887)

Today, as I write this, my brother-in-law way across this country in Oregon (some 2,500 miles from central Ohio) is having surgery on his heart.  Doctors do this kind of thing regularly, but still!  I’m thinking of him and my sister and wishing I would have called her more often.  “But what’s a poor boy to do?” as Mick has sung (“with the same old rock’n roll band…”).  I’m way over here in Ohio, and always working on this darn blog.

My other sister, Marty, who drew the logo for NatieRel, she started talking last night — not coincidentally — about how to say “The Hail Mary”.  She hadn’t done it in ages and forgot its words.  Both of us being rather thoroughly Catholicized in our youth, she asked me.  No problem.  It is the words by which the Angel Gabriel addressed Mary when informing her she would be “the mother of God.” The Annunciation.  In fact, a Blessed Virgin Mary, or the BVM as she is sometimes humorously and sacrilegiously referred to.

Hail, Mary!  Full of grace, the Lord is with thee.  Blessed art thou among woman, and blessed is the fruit of thy womb, Jesus.  Amen.

I used to be able to crank those out, ten at a time, but now I cannot bring myself to do a single one.

Yet, I feel the need to do something; to express something, to help, from way over here in Ohio.

I came across this poem a number of years ago.  It is about Prayer and kind of a prayer itself:  The Divine Image by William Blake, written in about 1789.

Before you read it, I must warn you that in the second stanza pronounce “DEAR” with an accent to be like DARE, then it will rhyme with “care”.  In stanza three, pronounce “DRESS” with an accent to be like ‘drace’ so that it rhymes with “FACE”.   To excuse the last stanza, I think we need to realize that in 1800, much of the world was alien and mysterious to Europeans.  Jewish people were always ostracized in Europe and thought of with great bias, similar to what they thought of “heathens” and “Turks”.  But note, here, all the above are in possession of “the human form divine”.

Importantly, God and Humans are equated through the mediation of Four Virtues: Mercy, Pity, Peace and Love, says Blake.  These virtues are as much human as divine.  Humans acting in accord with these virtues, as much as ‘God’, are the thing we pray to when in “Distress”, says the great poet.

The Divine Image

BY WILLIAM BLAKE

To Mercy, Pity, Peace, and Love
All pray in their distress:
And to these virtues
Return their thankfulness.
For Mercy, Pity, Peace, and Love
Is God, our father dear.
And Mercy, Pity, Peace, and Love
Is Man, his child and care.
For Mercy has a human heart,
Pity a human face,
And Love, the human form divine,
And Peace, the human dress.
Then every man, of every clime,
That prays in his distress,
Prays to the human form divine,
Love, Mercy, Pity, Peace.
And all must love the human form,
In heathen, Turk, or Jew,
Where Mercy, Pity, Peace dwell
There God is dwelling too.

 

 

Nice poem!  Deep.  When I am in distress, I have developed a little routine where I start with my thumb at the tip of my forefinger and say “To Mercy”, then to the tip of the next finger and say “To Pity“, then…”To Peace”, and finally at my little finger, “To Love.”  The next round is simpler: “To Mercy, Pity, Peace and Love” moving through my fingers.  Silly of me, to like that finger part, I think of it like closing a circuit: Letting the “Positive Energy” flow.

Energy flowing here at the naturereligionconnection!

HANG TOUGH, BRO.  WE ARE THINKING OF YOU !  You too, sis!  Love ya. 
P.S. By the time I published this and then revised it and published it again (with a fair amount of stuff in between), I had received word that the surgery was about over and was going very well!
cropped-img_34702-e1565808476815-4

Nika No More

IMG_4874

Nika was Nika, and now she is no more.  Her materials no longer carry on that pattern of organization so familiar and generally loved by my wife and myself.  What is left of that dear dog sits in a tin container atop a bookshelf with family photos.  What is left, also, is in our memory and habits.

All living things exhibit “need”,”effort” and “satisfaction”, contended American philosopher John Dewey in 1929.  Dewey was one of the prominent members of a philosophic movement called “Pragmatism”.  They sought to rehabilitate philosophic Idealism by expressing its insights in naturalistic terms.  Today, Idealism represents the belief that the wholeness of a thing is as real and significant as the pieces that compose it, in some contexts.

In that sense, a living thing is a whole whose activity expresses itself in its own characteristic environment: first, in its most immediate and ‘intimate’ environment — its own parts; its body and consciousness (as that variously applies); second, in its more ‘external’ environment where its needs, efforts and satisfactions play out.  Living things have this distinctive relation of “inside” and “out” as recognized by Dewey: “a living organism and its life processes involve a world or nature temporarily and spatially ‘external’ to itself but ‘internal’ to its functions.”  The web of a spider, the pond built by a beaver, the house of a person are its external ‘organs’, and their bodies are their most immediate ‘environment’.

This unity of inside and out makes a living thing “an equilibrium pattern”, Dewey wrote.   This particular pattern or organization must maintain itself through “restoration” and “recovery” in “a complex integrated course or history.”  In words more plain, a living thing must “keep this shit together” as long as it can.

Nika was such a history.  A mass of molecules, constantly varying, that was nonetheless her, nonetheless that same sweet dog.  That history, that continuity, is worth recounting.   That is this post: Our life with Nika.

Satisfaction

Nika had obvious satisfactions Upon the appearance of a friendly face her entire body burst into reaction.  Ears perked, the back half of her body swung side to side in sync with her wagging tail.  At that person’s feet, she would throw herself to the ground and roll, still wiggling, to expose her stomach.  With very little doubt, her behavior was always interpreted as “friendly”, “happy”, “affectionate”.

snoopy-happy-dance-clipart-2317
Another beloved beagle given to fits of enthusiasm.

Frequently, she could not contain herself, especially early in her life.  Her molecules seemed to explode with enthusiasm.  In the house, she would charge from room to room, repeatedly, with great speed and agility, over top of couches, under tables.

Nika was Nika, indeed; but she was also a beagle of a smaller variety.  Close to the ground, she weighted a mere 17 lbs.  In the backyard, when a fit of enthusiasm overtook her, she broke into full gallop.  Nose extended, low to the ground, legs fully outstretched,  she barely slowed when taking a corner.  She ran a circle-eight, cutting through garden and galloping over deck again and again.  We called it “the bullet run”.  Exhilarated by her own abilities, she did so appear.  

Need

Nika had needs, as do all living creatures.  Nika needed to smell.  Guided by her nose, often she did not get far.  Many things were worthy of a sniff to Nika.  My wife often despaired of walking her because she was interested in exercise but Nika in smelling  life’s daisies.

That keen nose got her into many situations, often bad.  Detecting the odor of the many hands that handled currency, she was led into my wife’s purse and my wallet.  On several occasions she pulled out bills.  Pieces of $5’s, $1’s and even a $20 once, were found on the floor or embedded in stinking piles in the backyard.

One winter holiday, my wife left accessible a bag of holiday-decorated, foil wrapped, chocolate Kisses.  Nika’s nose soon found them.  She consumed them foil and all.  This resulted in the most decorative turds I have ever seen.  Sparkling with reds and blues and green, they adorned the yard.

Yes, Nika needed to eat.  “Beagles are bagels,” a vet once told us; yet, Nika never gained

IMG_3358 (1)
She ate a trench in this cantaloupe left temporarily on floor after shopping trip.

weight in spite of her constant desire.  A ‘chow hound’, she was: She ate raw carrots and broccoli and certainly cooked.  Cantaloupe was a favorite and watermelon too.  Salad with dressing was nice, but so was ice.  Dirty socks (and underwear) left accessible were shredded and chewed.  Kitchen Handi Wipes that were used were several times chewed and they came out her end not much more abused.

Effort

She had her needs and like all living creatures was willing to put in the effort to fulfill them.  

We did indulge her.  In waiting for a plate to lick clean, Nika was never impatient.  She

img_4876.jpg
Not much effort here.  Nika in her favorite spot.

sat several feet away and stared and waited, stared and waited.  Seldom did she have anything better to do; staring, waiting for a plate to lick, that was Nika.

But a rabbit or squirrel was a horse of a different color.  When the word “rabbit” or “squirrel” was said with enthusiasm, Nika leaped to her feet, ears up, and looking about.  Constantly she rushed from the house or deck and through the yard in chase.  Never once did she catch one, and never did her efforts decline —- until late in life.  Every time the squirrel reached a tree, or the rabbit a hole in the fence.  The point was in the chase.

As Nika grew into adulthood, one of the most important factors in her environment changed.  I desired to see her in action.  After all, by nature and breeding beagles are rabbit hounds.  I began looking for opportunities while on walks in our suburban neighborhood to let go of her leash, allowing her in safe and somewhat confined situations to chase her prey.

And so she would dash and howl.  “OooOooOooo”, she howled, not barked, until the rabbit escaped and I regained the leash.  Once, a rabbit avoided the safety of yards and fences and raced (leaped) straight down the sidewalk of a cul de sac.  Nika followed at full speed and full voice, “OooOooOoooo”.   A neighbor came to the door thinking a dog had been hit.  “No, just chasing a rabbit.”

A Pattern of Activity No Longer Restored

Nika came to our house at the age of three from a relative who could no longer keep her.  She was with us for ten years.  As she grew old, like me, she lost much of her hair; her body became misshapen and she lost her swiftness and grace.  Her need to eliminate waste became more frequent, sporadic and prone to accident; again, like me.

She had a persistent cough and lost most of the use of her hind legs.

IMG_E5301When we decided “to put her down”, it was a fairly easy decision.  We feared leaving her at home alone when, as teachers, we returned to work in the fall.  We set up an appointment at OSU Veterinary Hospital and they did their job with great respect.

When the day arrived, we loaded Nika into the car.  They let us in a special door at the hospital and walked us to a special room, really more like a waiting room than an exam room.  As we walked down the hall to that room, I set Nika on the floor and she walked between us slowly, somewhat sideways, and with no awareness of what awaited.  In the room a pad was placed on a couch and Nika on the pad.  We sat next to her and held her as a large dose of anesthesia was administered.  She soon slept.  In minutes she stopped breathing.  Later, my wife recalled how she looked at Nika, when we were walking down that hospital hall, and realized Nika was no longer the dog she was.  And yet, Nika was still Nika, a pattern of activity that will never be forgotten.

IMG_E3837 (1)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Easter Joke!

It’s Easter Sunday morning and did you hear?  “He has risen!”  And how about this one?  Maybe you haven’t heard it.

Three guys die and its Easter. They are all atheists and good people, humanist types.
Much to their surprise they find themselves standing at the Pearly Gates with St. Peter, who says to them,
“I would really like to get you guys in here. You’ve lived good lives, been kind to people…
but to get you in you need to know something about Jesus, and since its Easter tell me about that.”
He turns to the first guy who says, “I got nuttin’.” Peter turns and presses a button, “Eehhnntt”, down he goes!
Pete turns to the second guy and says, “Come on, I’d really like to get you in!  Easter and Jesus!”
The guy looks puzzled and says, “Uhhhhh, chocolate rabbits, colored eggs, uhhhh…”
“Eehhnntt,” down he goes!
The third guy says, “Wait a minute, I think I got this. Jesus was this guy who lived back with the Romans and he went around trying to do good things, miracles and stuff, and he attracted a following but got in trouble with the authorities who put him to death around Easter time.”
St. Pete, excitedly, “Yes, yes, tell me more!
“Well, his followers,” the guy says proudly, “took Jesus’ body and placed it in a cave, a big hole and rolled a rock in front of it, and in a couple of days Jesus wakes up and comes out of his hole,. And then …. how does it go? If he sees his shadow, its….”
“Eeehhhnnnttt !”

resurrection-rembrant-838x1198
                         “Resurrection” by Rembrandt                     Ya gotta love those angel-babies, my grandmother sure              did!  Thanks to CATHOLICvirol for the image.

GOD and EVOLUTION, or You can’t get Something from Nothing but You can get More from Less.

(This is the Second Post for this new blog, naturereligionconnection.org.  Thank you for your curiosity concerning this curious topic.  What are the boundaries between Nature and Religion?  Can traditional religion offer us anything of value in our world of science?  Here some opening arguments are considered in this debate. Please comment, your thoughts are appreciated!    GregWW)

IMG_E3238
Da Vinci’s Chistine Chapel

I almost stumbled into a theological debate the other day. It was prevented by my not frequently used sense of tact.     At a family gathering, a young in-law was commenting on his  course in theology and surprisingly, he said he liked it!  As an incoming freshman at the catholic University of Dayton (Ohio), it is a required course.  He liked the logic of it and its abstract thoughtfulness, he said.

An older in-law chimed in saying that he too took that course many decades previously.  He is a graduate of  U.D. and slightly religious, but mostly he is a very practical man; a successful business owner and a person not inclined to obtuse thought of any form.  Yet, one idea from the course stuck with him, he said: “that in the beginning there was nothing, and now there is something; God was necessary to get something out of nothing.”

I declined to respond to that particular idea.  I was under strict orders (from the wife) to keep things light; so instead, I remarked that other theological arguments were of interest too, like the argument for God from design, or even the “ontological proof,” and that is where the discussion pretty much ended.

And there is something of interest in some of these ‘proofs.’  The argument from design,

dfkjer
God, “The Father”, looking down from the heavens: the Great Designer.  This painting is often used but seldom attributed to an artist.  I do not know its source.

for example, contends that all the fancy, complex interconnections in the world around us (including us) is evidence of a supremely capable designer, God. That contention is akin to the “something from nothing” argument.  How do you get all the marvels of today from, if not exactly nothing, then from the interaction of only heat, chemicals, and gravity, for example?  It seems to many people an insufferable gap—a metaphysical leap—between non-life and life, insensate matter and consciousness, a universe of only atoms and a universe of goodness and evil, beauty and the abhorrent.

“The vast majority of life is gravity and electromagnetism pushing around electrons and nuclei” contends the physicist Sean Carroll in his widely read The Big Picture, On the Origins of Life, Meaning, and the Universe Itself.  In this post, we will try to provide an answer to that ‘smaller’ part of life that seems to be a bit more than Carroll’s four components from above.

The Traditional Answer

IMG_E3229
The Big Bang

The traditional answer to these conundrums is to impose some magic:  A divinity must intervene.  A grand creator is necessary. Some ‘breath’ (the Greek noumena) must be added to the “dust.”  Some ‘spark’ must be applied; a spark like a common earthly spark—in some ways—but much more potent because of its immaterial character. You need to add some ‘spirit’ to matter; some supreme intelligence must be at work, it is said.

Concerning “something from nothing,” the answer I could have given my theistic relative is this: “You have painted yourself into an intellectual corner. In common experience and scientific research, we never discover the predecessor of a thing to be nothing, or the working components of a thing to be nonexistent (no insides!).  Yet this is how you have framed your problem—‘how from nothing, something?’  It is little wonder that you need to go fishing and come up with an equally baffling idea for an answer: God.”

IMG_E3230
Rutherford model of the atom

“In reality what we always find is a series of things leading to another thing or originating in another thing.  In a larger thing, we always find smaller parts. So, in general, it’s processes inside of processes inside of processes; cycles inside of cycles; parts made of parts; all the way ‘down’ (smaller) and all the way ‘out’ (larger).  This, and not theism, is the most reasonable philosophical belief for today,” I could have concluded.

 

solar_1
The Solar System, a system within the larger system of our galaxy.  The living systems of Earth are then very dependent on there place in this Solar system.

That is a satisfying answer, certainly suitable for any free-wheeling family get-together discussion; but in our current context—here at the Nature Religion Connection-–it  needs an addendum for a more complete understanding.

When the processes in processes and the cycles on top of cycles come together in a new way and create a new thing, new qualities and abilities emerge in that object.  “ ‘Emergent’: important word that,” says biology theorist, Richard Dawkins.  In other words, where did these qualities and abilities in this new thing come from? Is their appearance some deep mystery that needs more than a physical explanation to understand?  Is it a ‘leap’ as unlikely as “getting blood from a turnip,” as the old saying puts it?

Getting More From Less

img_e3232.jpg
Drawing of Goethe’s poem “The Sorcerer’s Apprentice” by F. Barth

No, it is not a metaphysical leap, but it is getting more from less.  Though we cannot get something from nothing, Evolution* can get more from, well, less.  And, in this sense, we do need a special explanatory principle.  Evolutionary Theory is how we explain the origin and existence of complexity; it is how we explain “Climbing Mount Improbable,” says Dawkins.  “The basic Darwinian motif” is “in the beginning there was some relatively unstructured and unsophisticated raw material; mutations of one sort or another occurred; and out of this emerged something novel,” contends the philosopher and cognitive scientist, Daniel Dennett. This novel thing that is produced will be more structured; it will be the outcome of a more sophisticated organization, a more designed “raw material.”  That is how to get more from less, enhance the design!   

The so-called ‘leap’ in ability and character that appear in the new object may be as humble as the combination of two gases to get a liquid-–two hydrogen atom and one oxygen to get a water molecule.  This ‘leap’ from gas to liquid does not shock us, though maybe it should considering it is a precursor of more startling things to come.  For example, it seems that the proper combination of six chemicals can create life!  To add insult to injury for those confounded by this possibility, for around $100 you can buy materials containing five of these chemicals (in their proper proportions) at your local hardware store and obtain the sixth by distilling urine!

Of course, all the ‘magic’ is in the recipe—how can you put these six elements together to allow them to live?  It’s like Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein!  Various biochemists around the world are working at this very moment to do this, and, though they have made some significant advances, to date they have failed.  To some people this leaves the door open: ‘there are gaps unbridgeable by science between not only non-life and life but also matter and consciousness, and caused events and free will,’ they protest.  It is not hard to have some sympathy for this view, as an account in American Indian lore puts it: “on what particular day, long ago, did the mud sit up?”

There are No Gaps

IMG_E3233
Philosopher and theorist in wide ranging areas: Dan Dennett.  He is one of the ‘guiding lights’ here at NatieRel.

Dennett, has two suggestions to help us with the appearance of such “leaps.”  One, he argues that in reality there are no drastic gaps ;  and two, we need to update our imagination and intuition if we feel there is.

First, he says, what lies between non-life and life, matter and conscious, et al, is a very long series of gradual changes, slight adjustments, incremental installments that create slightly more complex things, slightly more capable molecules, states and creatures.   Billions of years of such tiny attempts form the evolutionary road to where we are today.  This “gradualism” is a key component in Evolution and in the logic of any Holistic philosophy.  Dennett carries this principal of gradualism to its logical end when he argues that, in reality, no exact line can be drawn between life and non-life, insensate things and conscious things, caused events and freely chosen actions!  In Nature, boundaries are always fuzzy and gradual.  Life shades off into non-life and freely chosen actions eek out some “elbow room” amid Nature as a causal matrix.

For example, viruses occupy a gray zone, neither alive nor dead.   Viruses both reproduce and are incapable of

shutterstock_164139374-300x225
A virus is extremely simple and small.  Consisting of a protein shell and several strands of RNA or DNA.  Its size is between 20 to 30 millionths of a millimeter! Picture and info from Great Courses Daily blog.

reproducing on their own.  We can, in a sense, appropriately call them ‘bugs’—as in ‘flu bug’— yet we know they do not eat (metabolize).  They are sort of alive, as are early stage fetuses and brain-dead patients.

Sensitivity and consciousness is another example of gradualism.  In our everyday world, we think of a continuum of creatures who possess greater and lesser degrees of ‘mindfulness.’ An ant is like a little person, in some ways.  It is full of intentions, scurrying about with jobs to do, goals to accomplish.  Many of us even feel a twinge of regret if we step on one: ‘Oh, it must have felt pain.’ But we acknowledge that the ant is not a full-blown consciousness nor a full-blown person, and we kill hundreds of them with insecticide if they take up shop in our kitchen.

img_e4941-e1568808572262.jpg
A Water Hyacinth, Eichornia, like all plants, exhibits sensitivity and advanced responses.  Photo by GregWW.

IMG_0019
The family dog

A plant is even less sensitive than the ant, with no consciousness at all; but the family dog, it ranks way up there, fully conscious (?), loyal, nearly a person.  This continuum of growing consciousness, abilities and even ‘person-ality’ is what Dennett calls “a deep fact, the kind you build a theory on.”  This fact reflects the history of the evolutionary appearance of abilities and creatures.  In western culture, our awareness of these resemblances has been prevalent since, at least, the middle ages.  There is “a great chain of          being.”

 

 

 

Gradualism

IMG_E3234In medieval philosophy and lore, this “great chain” started with God at the top and ran down to angels, humans, animals, plants and finally inanimate objects.  It was thought to be the manifestation of god-like abilities in the world (in more modern terms, ‘mindfulness’, consciousness and value). Their chain included the social order, the prejudices and political ideology of the feudal society in Europe. It is curious to note, in the depiction at left, many of the particular rankings but especially that of actor—below a beggar and just above a thief!

This “Great Chain” is a “top-down” model of creation, says Dennett, and was one of the mainstay arguments against Evolution: ‘Only Absolute Wisdom could create lesser wisdoms and abilities. From Absolute Ignorance (inanimate matter) no creation occurs.’  None the less, the chain exhibits an awareness of gradualism and the family of relations that we find so prevalent in our experience of Nature and explained aptly only by the fact of Evolution. Today, the most reasonable way to understand this Great Chain is as biology’s Tree of LifeGradualism is a hallmark of Nature.

klimt2c_lebensbaum
Tree of Life, Gustav Klimt, 1903

Second, Dennett contends, if you are still prone to feel or think there are unbridgeable (metaphysical) gaps, then you need to expand your imagination and modernize your intuitions.  A “bottom-up” vision of creation is readily available in fields beyond that of evolutionary biology.  For example, machines can, now, think! They can write music, play chess and search and solve puzzles—a fact first proven as far back as World War II.  Even one hundred years ago, the impulse to feel ‘startling gaps’ was understandable, but science, technology and speculative thought (art, science fiction in novels and movies, and much of modern philosophy) no longer make these ‘gaps’ obvious: They are no longer ‘common sense.’

Modern technology rivals the traditional “miracles of God” with organ replacement, artificial insemination, cloning, human flight, the fission and fusion of atoms and near instantaneous communication around our planet and even beyond.  We have already revised many of our traditional intuitions and Dennett is a leader in that campaign.  For example, he persuasively contends that we, humans, are very fancy, evolved machines; and someday very fancy, human-designed machines (robots) may be considered persons, though not human persons. These, all, are “intuition shakers” and “imagination stretchers” and they facilitate what was once considered merely a shameful, godless fantasy: bottom-up creativity.

IMG_E3236
Chess-playing computer beats Grand Master, twenty years ago

robin-williams-bicentennial-man-movie-prop_eye-contacts
“The Bicentennial Man” and actor Robin Williams.  How far into the future before such a man become actual?

That Larger Something

So, we don’t need to get something from nothing.  Instead, we have been very fortunate to get much from what seems relatively little.  It took a lot of time (billions of years), a lot of effort (the subtle design adjustments of Evolution in generation after generation), and lots of research (the unrelenting trial and error of Natural Selection).   In addition, it took some luck.  The virtuoso was Mother Nature, not God, but now, even we—Her Children—have become significantly creative.

We, humans,  are now in position to believe, with good reason, that in this part of the universe efforts have been underway to build a creation of vast significance: our biosphere It is a living sculpture.  Hopefully, we will continue to play a part that will not only assist in the survival of this work of art, but also promote its enhancement.  After all, we are not only indebted to it; we are embedded in it!

klimtpanna
Gustav Klimt, The Virgin, 1913

*I have chosen to continue the tradition of capitalizing the “g” of God in this piece, but in an effort to mitigate this deference I will also capitalize the words—Nature, Mother Nature, Evolution, Holism.  These terms describe what I take to be the real phenomena behind the apparition, God.

cropped-img_34702-e1565808476815-11
Logo by Marty.